Synthroid is an analog of the hormone thyroxine in the human body. The active ingredient is Levothyroxine (L-Thyroxine). This medicine is used to compensate for the deficiency of thyroid hormones. It is produced in tablet form in dosages from 25 to 200 mg. The tablets are round. Synthroid is a prescription drug.
The drug is a synthetic analog of natural thyroxine. Different doses of the drug have different effects. 1) small doses - accelerated metabolism; 2) medium doses - assimilation of nutrients and elements; 3) high doses - suppress the production of hormones TSH and TSHR.
Absorption occurs in the gastrointestinal tract up to 80%. The drug is metabolized mainly in the liver and partly in the kidneys. The highest plasma concentration observes after 6.5 hours. Most of them bind to specific thyroxine-binding proteins. Once in the body, up to 80% of levothyroxine is converted into triiodothyronine (T3). The half-life lasts up to a week. The drug is excreted by bile and kidneys in the form of active and inactive substances.
• Malignant neoplasms after surgery; • Deficiency of thyroid hormones; • Euthyroid state with goiter; • As a replacement therapy after resection; • Graves' disease after reaching the euthyroid state; • As part of complex therapy in the treatment of Graves' disease, autoimmune thyroiditis; • Diagnostic test for detecting decreased hormone secretion.
The best way to take the drug is in the morning on an empty stomach. A doctor should set the daily dose of Synthroid individually after laboratory and clinical examination.
The dosage is 12.5-300 mg per day. It is permissible to take a daily dosage in 1 dose. If taking the drug is missed, the patient should not increase the dosage of the next dose. Children with congenital hypothyroidism use a dosage of 10-15 mg/kg until the first three months of life and adjust the dosage based on test results.
The starting dose is 50 mg/day, with a gradual increase of 25 mg / day and an interval of 2 weeks.
For children, the starting dose is 12.5 mg/day, but more is possible. The calculation is based on height and body weight. The calculation is based on height and body weight.
The diagnostic test is 200 mg per day for two weeks or 300 mg per day for one week.
Euthyroid goiter - children up to 150 mg/day, adults up to 200 mg per day.
May lead to hyperthyroidism up to thyrotoxic crisis. Thyrotoxic crisis is a life-threatening condition characterized by a sharp increase in thyroxine and triiodothyronine. The main symptoms are tachycardia, shortness of breath, agitation, fever, diarrhea, tremors, and psychosis.There may be cases when hyperthyroidism appears a few days after taking the drugs.
The best and most reliable indicator of overdose is the T3 hormone.
Overdose treatment: Beta-blockers Corticosteroids Plasmapheresis
Dizziness; Nervousness; Apathy; Insomnia; Difficulty falling asleep; Drowsiness; Dry skin; Rash, itching, hyperemia of the skin; Puffiness of the face; Tachycardia; Pressure drops; Clinical convulsions Headache; Tremor; Angina pectoris; Loose stools, constipation, abdominal pain; Disorders in the menstrual cycle; Increased body temperature; Change in weight.
Thyrotoxicosis; Hyperthyroidism; Acute heart disease; Hypopituitarism
During pregnancy and lactation, taking the drug is allowed strictly under the supervision of a doctor, without violating the regimen, the time of taking the drug, and the dose. An exception is shared use with thyreostatic since the risk of developing hypothyroidism in the fetus increases.
It is allowed for admission in children following the prescribed doses and forms.
Elderly patients are advised to start with low doses and gradually increase the dose at intervals of 3 weeks.
If there are cardiac pathologies, the intake is started with low doses with a gradual increase.
If there is a pituitary gland lesion, it is imperative to determine if there is adrenal insufficiency. If there is a lesion, it is necessary to begin replacing therapy with glucocorticosteroids before using thyroid hormones. Otherwise, there is a high likelihood of developing acute adrenal insufficiency .
Levothyroxine affects the content of hypoglycemic drugs. Therefore, corrections should be made for diabetes.
The drug should be taken with caution in diabetes.
There was evidence of a worsening of pre-existing myasthenia gravis.
Synthroid increases the work of indirect anticoagulants (warfarin);
Increases the content of tricyclic anticoagulants;
Reduces the work of cardiac glycosides (digoxin);
It also reduces the effectiveness of oral hypoglycemic drugs.Therefore, in patients with diabetes, it is necessary to increase the dose of insulin and hypoglycemic agents at the beginning of replacement therapy for hypothyroidism.
High doses of furosemide and the intake of asparaginase, anabolic steroids, tamoxifen, salicylates compete with Synthroid to connect with plasma transport proteins.
Aluminum hydroxide, sucralfate, calcium carbonate, cholestyramine, colestipol, ritonavir, and soy products reduce the absorption of the drug.
Carbamazepine, rifampicin, phenobarbital affect the excretion of levothyroxine.
Amiodarone, ethionamide, antithyroid drugs, diazepam, beta-blockers, aminoglutethimide, dopamine, lovastatin, levodopa, chloral hydrate, metoclopramide affects the bioavailability, synthesis, and metabolism of the drug.
Proguanil and chloroquine increase TSH.
Hypothyroidism is associated with a deficiency of thyroid hormones - thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), which causes the entire body to work slowly.
Hypothyroidism can be primary, secondary, and tertiary. Let us try to figure out what this means.
Primary hypothyroidism is most common. It is associated with direct damage to the thyroid gland due to inflammation, oncology, resection, radiation, the consumption of large amounts of iodine, congenital pathology, Etc. It also includes an overdose of thyrostatic drugs. The Wolf-Chaikov effect is often a temporary condition caused by a decrease in thyroid hormones. It is associated with the inhibition of hormone production due to an excess of iodine in the body. Usually resolves quickly, but rare cases lead to hypothyroidism. At the age of 2 years, this condition often occurs against the background of underdevelopment of the thyroid gland.
If hypothyroidism occurs due to a lack of complete absence of the pituitary hormones TSH, it is called secondary. More often, it occurs against the background of the pathology of the pituitary gland: injury, radiation, inflammatory processes, or neurosurgical operations.
When the lesion occurs at the level of the hypothalamus, and there is a deficiency or absence of thyroliberin hormones (TRH), tertiary hypothyroidism occurs. This pathology is rare and occurs when the hypothalamus is damaged.
The clinic is more pronounced in primary hypothyroidism; however, in secondary and tertiary, in addition to hypothyroidism, another clinic is layered, such as adrenal insufficiency, diabetes insipidus, and others.
There are two stages of the disease.
Subclinical hypothyroidism is latent, and there are no main symptoms; it can be accompanied by depression or low mood. A laboratory can reveal - an increase in total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins. In addition to the increased hormones T4 and T3, TSH and anti-TPO are also increased. Because of this, the likelihood of developing hypothyroidism appears.
Manifest hypothyroidism begins with the appearance of weakness, fatigue, a decrease in muscle strength, muscle pain, drowsiness, a feeling of coldness and lethargy, an increase in body weight occurs due to the accumulation of excess fluid. The skin becomes dry, pale, cold, a yellow tint appears, sweating decreases. The face becomes pointed, and the eyelids swell, the hair becomes brittle and dry, eyebrows sometimes fall out. The pulse becomes rare, the pressure decreases more often, but there are also cases of increase.
The voice of a person changes and becomes hoarse due to edema and thickening of the ligaments, breathing changes in depth and frequency. Respiratory failure is also possible.
In the intestine, constipation is more often observed, up to its obstruction and the development of paralytic AIO. As a result, ascites appear, effusions in the cavities are possible.
On the part of the nervous system, paresthesias may develop, for example, false tingling sensations and burning. Due to carpal syndromes associated with protein-like deposits in the joints, reflexes are reduced. Sometimes patients may complain of hearing loss.
Dysmenorrhea and miscarriages are observed in women. In men, libido decreases.
However, even with low laboratory values, the entire symptoms will not necessarily show up. A set of symptoms corresponds to each patient individually and may not appear at all. Above, we have described only possible general symptoms.
It is also worth noting that the clinical picture of hypothyroidism in elderly patients occurs more often without specific signs or monosymptomatic. Often, the doctor attributes the signs of hypothyroidism to an aging person. Therefore, the doctor should suspect hypothyroidism syndrome if the patient has a history of thyroid disease.
Hypothyroidism causes heart disease and also contributes to its progression. If a person suffers from diseases of the heart and blood vessels and at the same time still has a lack of hormones, then the correction of treatment should be done more often, monitoring the work of the entire system of the body as a whole.
A condition that is called life-threatening and occurs when hypothyroidism is left untreated is called myxedema coma. It can also be triggered by a concomitant infection or medication, even when treating hypothyroidism.
This condition can be suspected if the person's temperature drops to 30 degrees, the pressure drops below 90/60, the heart rate is below 50 beats per minute. Muscle tone is also sharply reduced, and cramps may occur.
Shortness of breath develops. As a result, hypoxemia with hypercapnia can be determined in the gas composition of the blood. Blood sugar drops, and shock develops.
A patient who does not want to "stuff himself with pills" will naturally open up Google sources and start looking for methods of treatment that are alternative to proven medicine.
Five tablespoons of dill seeds; 50 g of garlic; 150 g of walnuts; 500 g of honey. Steam the garlic, then chop it and dill seeds with walnuts. This whole mixture is mixed with honey and taken one tablespoon three times a day before meals. What will come of this? An expensive mixture that does not cure hypothyroidism in any way but strengthens the immune system.
It offers to treat hypothyroidism with juice. Take 200 ml of carrot juice, 200 ml of potato juice, 100 ml of beet juice. Mix everything and take during the day for three weeks. It is also recommended to exclude the intake of meat. Of course, this method has no connection with thyroid hormones.
One tablespoon of dried juniper berries; 100 g butter. Ground berries into powder and heat the oil in a water bath. Boil for only about 5 minutes. This mixture is applied directly to the thyroid area.
Thyroid disease and hypothyroidism are widespread in older patients. According to statistics, almost 10% of men and women aged 60 and older suffer from it. Moreover, if this disease is easily diagnosed at a young age, then in elderly patients, the clinical picture is often erased and atypical. In patients over 50 years of age, the number of symptoms is significantly less than in younger people. Often, the disease manifests itself nonspecifically and is equated with the signs of aging: incontinence, weight loss, loss of concentration, memory loss, confusion, and many other symptoms.
Thyroid hormones have multiple points of action, so their lack leads to the wilting of the whole organism.
Using traditional medicine, it is worth thinking about how all these methods have a connection with the production of hormones. The answer will be one - none.
Traditional medicine will never replace scientific medicine. Therefore, do not bring the body to irreversible conditions and start treatment on time.