Diseases of the thyroid gland are quite popular today. A large number of people suffer from them, especially the female half. This disease is very serious, since the hormones contained in the thyroid gland are the main regulators of the homeostasis of the human body. With their direct participation, the main metabolic processes occur in organs and tissues. New cells are formed, as well as their structural differentiation and genetically programmed destruction of old cells.
Another equally important function of thyroid hormones is the constant maintenance of body temperature, energy production. Thyroid hormones contribute to the regulation of oxygen consumption by the body's tissues, energy production, and control the neutralization and formation of free radicals. Throughout life, hormones affect the mental as well as physical development of the body.
Insufficient hormone levels at an early age can provoke bone disease and lead to stunted growth of the child. During pregnancy, a lack of these hormones seriously increases the risk of cretinism in a newborn. This can be due to insufficient brain development in the womb. Thyroid hormones are responsible for the normal functioning of the immune system - they stimulate its cells, with the help of which the body has to fight infections.
Any pathology of the thyroid gland has characteristic symptoms of manifestation, which are influenced by certain reasons. These diseases can be conditionally divided into 3 groups:
Diseases proceeding without changes in the functional activity of the gland, but at the same time carrying morphological structural changes (formation of nodes, goiter, hyperplasia, etc.);
Diseases, the symptoms of which are manifested by a violation of hormonal levels. One of the most common today is hypothyroidism; Diseases as a result of which there is an increased synthesis or secretion of hormones are thyrotoxicosis;
• Disorders of the immune system - in this case, the thyroid gland is perceived as a foreign body, and the immune system begins to "fight" with it. This is due to the production of antibodies, as a result of which more hormones are produced, which can lead to its complete destruction; • Graves' disease - its symptoms, in addition to bulging eyes, are irritability, sweating, hand tremors, weight loss and increased heart rate. As a result of this disease, for an unknown reason, the body begins to develop specific antibodies against the thyroid gland. As a result, it in its entirety or some part of it begins to work overly actively and uncontrollably; • Infections of any kind of chronic disease; • The use of certain medications; • Unbalanced nutrition, the result of which is an insufficient content in the body of trace elements and vitamins, mainly iodine; • Unfavorable ecology - radiation. The thyroid gland is the most radiosensitive organ, and radiation has a huge effect on its robot; • Psycho-emotional overload is the result of modern everyday life; Genetic predisposition plays an important role in the occurrence of any kind of thyroid disease.
It should be noted with a diffuse increase in the thyroid gland of 1 and 2 degrees, without dysfunction, it is not called a goiter, because it is not a pathology.
• Nodal; • Diffuse; • Mixed.
• Thyrotoxic nodular goiter - toxic adenoma; • Hyperthyroid - increased thyroid function; • Hypothyroid - decreased thyroid function; • Euthyroid - the function of the gland is unchanged (not impaired). • Hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis, according to the severity of the disorder, can be severe, moderate and mild.
• Chronic thyroidin - Hashimoto's goiter; • Subacute thyroidin - De Quervain's goiter; • Acute thyroidin.
• Squamous cell carcinoma; • Undifferentiated cancer; • Medullary cancer; • Papillary cancer.
Diseases of the thyroid gland occupy the 2nd place in the structure of pathological changes in the endocrine organs, followed by diabetes mellitus.
Symptoms of any thyroid disease, regardless of the cause, are due to changes in the functioning of the organ or its structure. Visual symptoms of the changes that have occurred are expressed in the appearance of a goiter - a characteristic increase in this organ.
To suspect such a disease in thyrotoxicosis, symptoms help, consisting in an increased heart rate, increased blood pressure, a sharp weight loss, a feeling of constant heat, tremors in the hands, bulging and mental impairment.
Symptoms of hypothyroidism are characterized by decreased blood pressure and increased weight, slowed speech and decreased memory. A clear sign is hoarseness, hoarseness, and daytime sleepiness.
Methods for diagnosing thyroid diseases
Diagnosis of thyroid diseases consists in the use of numerous laboratory methods and examinations, which are as follows:
• Endocrinologist consultation; • Visual research; • Conducting functional tests; • Determination of the parameters of the monitored thyroid gland; • Research on autoimmune and oncological diseases; • Ultrasound; • Research of hormones by blood test, such as TSH, T3, T4; • MRI; • Radioisotope scanning; • Punctuation fine needle biopsy; • Morphological examination of the removed thyroid gland or biopsy.
With the help of a comprehensive examination, specialists reveal how the organ functions. On ultrasound, morphological changes in it are determined. Based on the results of analyzes for hormones and antibodies, the functional tension of argon, its ability to produce hormones, as well as the intensity of hormone secretion and their lack in the body are assessed.
Autoimmune diseases of the thyroid gland, as well as any other changes in this organ, may have hidden symptoms, which makes it impossible to carry out timely therapy. But, despite this, the treatment of any thyroid disease must be started on time, since serious consequences are possible in advanced situations.
With a diffuse variety of goiter with hypothyroidism, hormone therapy is used to eliminate the deficiency of hormones in the body. The duration of hormone therapy continues for a year, until the organ is fully restored. To support the functioning of the thyroid gland, iodine-containing drugs are prescribed.
With the nodular course of the disease against the background of hypertriosis and benign hyperplasia, drugs are prescribed, the active ingredient of which is radioactive iodine. For this treatment, it is necessary to first determine the symptoms of its course, because therapy is effective only if there is a sufficient amount of thyroid hormone in the blood.
Removal of an organ using surgery is performed only in the presence of a malignant tumor. After removal of the tumor, therapy is prescribed, aimed at eliminating the cause of the disease, the active substance of which is radioactive iodine, which destroys the remnants of malignant formation in the tissues of the affected organ. Also in this case, after the procedure, the patient needs to prescribe hormones.